Perceived in the taste of the wine as a level of tartness, acidity is a
naturally component consisting of mainly tartaric acid, at about 0.5 to
0.7 percent of the wine by volume.
Natural organic chemical compounds responsible for the red, blue and
purple colours of grapes and wine. Include anthocyanins, anthocyanidins
Exposing the wine to oxygen either through decanting or allowing the
wine to "breathe" in an opened bottle or glass. Thought to allow
off-odors to dissipate in older wines, and to soften aromas in younger
The sugar in wine grapes is fermented through the winemaking process
into alcohol, and is measured as a percentage of volume. In white wines,
this ranges between 9 and 14 percent; in red wines between 11 and 14
Oak wood for wine barrels sourced in American forests. Favored by many
winemakers, particularly those in Australia and Spain.
Short for Appellation d'Origine Controlee (sometimes Appellation
Controlee abbreviated as AC). Translates literally to protected place
name, and is the official French category for higher-ranking wines. AOC
wines are categorized according to name, origin, grape varieties and
other legal definitions.
Official name referring to a wine's geographic region of origin.
Used to refer to a wine, particularly white wines, with intensely floral
or fruity aromas, such as Muscat or Viognier.
The smell of a wine. Some people use the term aroma for younger wines;
bouquet for those that have been aged.
Caused by tannin, refers to the mouth-puckering character of some wines.
In wine tasting, the first impression of a wine on the mouth. Usually
perceived as a first "hit" on the tip of the tongue and at the front of
Acronym for American Viticultural Area, indicating wine-growing regions
as defined through geographic and climatic boundaries by the Federal
Government. Theoretically, the American version of the French AOC
The relationship of the components of the wine including alcohol,
residual sugar, acid and tannin. When no one component stands out
against the rest, the wine is said to be well balanced, an indication of
Refers to wines that are fermented in containers such as stainless
steel, then placed in oak barrels to mature. Also refers to wines that
are fermented in the barrel.
Some white wines, notably Chardonnay, may be fermented in barrels rather
than in stainless steel to impart a subtle oak character.
A small wooden barrel used for ageing red wine, and fermenting some
styles of white wine. Most barrels are about 227 liters (50 gallons) in
size, and are made of oak, primarily from French and American forests.
Small French oak barrel.
Used to describe wines that are very full and intense; considered the
opposite of elegant.
Aromas and flavors found typically in red wines including those of
blackberries, black currants, blueberries and black cherries.
Grapes with reddish or blue pigment in their skins used to make red
To assemble individual lots of wine together to make one wine. Can apply
to different grape varieties, or grapes of the same type from different
vineyards, regions and vintages.
The tactile impression of wine in your mouth. Think in terms of light,
medium and full--or skim milk, whole milk and cream!
A style of wine assembled from the classic red grapes of Bordeaux
including Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Malbec and Petit
The winemaker decides how long a wine will age in the bottle before it
is released for sale. Many wines are made to be consumed upon release;
finer wines, particularly reds, may require additional bottle ageing by
the consumer. In the case of Champagne and sparkling wine, bottle ageing
allows the wine to acquire, complexity, depth and fine texture; it is
also known as ageing "on the yeast" or "en tirage".
The more developed and complex aromas said to be evident in older and
A wine descriptor referring the character of the wine, including its
appearance in the glass, to be fresh and exciting, and refracting light.
Scale of measurement of total dissolved compounds in grape juice and
approximate concentration of sugars used in the United States as one
gauge of ripeness at harvest. One degree Brix is approximately 12-g/l
Champagne style that is very dry, meaning little or no residual sugar.
Barrel stopper made of glass, plastic, rubber, silicone or other
material which seals the bung-hole in the barrel like a cork. Can be
removed to permit topping up or racking. The position of the bunghole
can be changed to maximise or reduce aeration.
Descriptor often applicable to Chardonnay that has undergone malolactic
fermentation; describes both texture and flavour attributes.
The Italian word for castle; refers to a wine estate, such as Castello
A woody aroma that characterises certain red varietals.
Refers to sparkling wines made from grapes grown in the Champagne region
of France and vinified using the Methode Champenoise winemaking process.
Term is sometimes used to refer to sparkling wines from different
regions, but correctly, only sparkling wine from Champagne may be called
Aromas and flavours of a toasty nature created by the application of oak
barrel ageing to the wine.
A French winery estate, typically found in Bordeaux and the Loire
Valley, the architecture of chateaux can range from grand to mundane.
Italian term indicating that wine comes from the heart of a specific
region. While Chianti Classico is a demarcated DOCG district, the
Classico for Verdicchio, for example, refers to the central part of the
A selection within a grape variety, which exhibits certain
characteristics distinct from others in the group. Viticulturists and
winemakers experiment with different clones of the same variety to
optimize their plantings and provide specific flavor and tactile
Term used in Port winemaking referring to vintage.
Typically refers to a wine-growing village in the Burgundy region of
Wine described as intense but not full.
Opposite of simple. A wine that has a lot going on.
Dense aromas and flavors.
What wines with dense aromas and flavors evidence (as opposed to weak
Collective term for wooden containers; also used to refer to the
activities and workplace of coopers, who make and repair small barrels
and large wooden vats.
Wines, particularly barrel-fermented Chardonnay that has undergone a
secondary, malolactic fermentation, that have a rich, smooth mouth-feel
and are fuller in body are often characterized as creamy.
Describes wines that are clean, and possibly a bit on the tart side.
Opposite of soft. Wines that are crisp are typically higher in acid, and
go well with food.
A blend of many lots of still wines, particularly Chardonnay, Pinot Noir
and Pinot Meunier, designed to become a well-balanced Champagne or
To transfer wine from the bottle into another container, to aerate or to
separate a red wine from its sediment
A Champagne style that is semi-dry, but sweeter than sec.
The impression of many layers of complexity in a fine wine.
The process by which the sediment collected in the neck of the Champagne
bottle during the riddling process is frozen and expelled prior to the
Refers to a geographic area more specific than region, but less specific
Abbreviation for Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita ,
meaning controlled and guaranteed place. Italy's official category for
its highest ranking wines.
Abbreviation for Denominazione di Origine Controllata, which means
controlled place name. Italy's official category for wines whose name,
region of origin, variety and other defining factors are regulated by
law. In Portugal, DOC is also an abbreviation for the highest official
wine category, Denominacao de Origem Controlada.
French term for wine estate, commonly used in Burgundy.
The liqueur, or sugar dissolved in reserve wine, added to the Champagne
just before final corking. The dosage finishes the Champagnes and
determines its level of sweetness.
A Champagne style that is sweet.
Abbreviation for Denominacion de Origen, which means place name and
refers to Spain's official category for wines whose name, region of
origin, variety and other defining factors are regulated by law.
Refers to a wine that is not sweet. Can also mean a wine that feels
rough or dry in the mouth.
Opposite of bright and clean; can refer to a wine's appearance, aromas
and flavours or overall style.
Refers to aromas and flavours that suggest wet or dry earth or minerals.
Suggests a wine of a certain delicacy and grace as opposed to power and
A property that grows grapes and makes wine from its own vineyards.
A Champagne style that is extra dry, but sweeter than Brut.
A naturally occurring process by which the action of yeast converts
sugar in grape juice into alcohol, and the juice becomes wine.
The final impression of the wine in the mouth after swallowing,
particularly in terms of length and persistence of flavour.
Describes a wine neither soft nor harsh in reference to tannins in a red
wine and acidity in a white.
Describes wines that are too soft.
Organic compounds in grapes responsible for many of the aromas and
flavours in wine.
How strongly wine flavours are perceived.
The aromatic components of wine that define its varietal characteristics
as noted in the mouth.
Wines so described have a rich texture and mouth-feel.
Wines such as Port to which alcohol has been added.
Considered by many to be the finest oak for the ageing of white wines;
also used for reds.
The characteristics of the wine has derived from the fruit, including
aromas, flavours, tannins, acidity and extract.
The fruit aromas and flavours evident in wine. Can be fresh, dried,
cooked; examples include fresh apples, dried figs, and strawberry jam.
Tannins in a red wine attributed to the grapes as opposed to winemaking
Type of grape, such as Chardonnay or Merlot.
Referring to a pleasant and graceful balance of components in a wine.
Indicazione Geografica Tipica. A category of wines created in Italy by
Wine Law 164 in 1992 to approximate the French Vin de Pays and German
Used to describe wines that express their character powerfully.
The grape solids and spent yeast cells that fall to the bottom of a
white wine after fermentation.
The sustained impression of a wine across the tongue.
The process of soaking the skins of red grapes in their juice to extract
colour, tannins and other substances into the wine; can occur pre or
A natural, secondary fermentation, optional in the winemaking process,
which softens the total acidity of the wine through the conversion of
malic into lactic acid.
The process by which a wine reaches a point of readiness for bottling;
can continue in the bottle.
Used to describe flavors and aromas that suggest minerals, such as
flint, steel, chalk etc.
The ring of light foam at the top of a glass of sparkling wine.
The traditional French Champagne winemaking method used for producing
The equivalent of the traditional French Champagne process know as
Methode Champenoise, but applied to the making of sparkling wines
outside the Champagne region.
Can refer to brand new barrels, or barrels that have been used from one
to four years previously.
Winemaking countries such as Australia, New Zealand, USA, South Africa,
Chile, Argentina, Canada etc. outside of Western Europe.
Refers to those Champagnes whose Cuvee contains wine from a previous
Broad descriptor to describe aromas and flavours of nuts in a wine; more
specifically hazelnut, almonds, roasted nuts etc.
The aroma and flavour characteristics imparted to a wine through the use
of oak barrel fermentation and/or ageing. These may be characterised as
vanilla, caramel, butterscotch, toast, smoke or char. Sometimes
associated with imparting a higher tanning level than the wine might
Term for wines that are neither fully sweet not dry.
Barrels old enough to have lost much of its woody character. Generally
five year or older.
Term referring to vines that are generally 40 years or older. Presumed
to deliver small yields, but good quality.
Refers to the winemaking countries of Western Europe including France,
Italy, Spain, Portugal, and Germany.
Referring to the mouth, or how a wine's characteristics manifest
themselves in the mouth.
Aromas or flavours reminiscent of gasoline, classic in European versions
of GewÃ¼rztraminer and Riesling.
A parasite that feeds on the roots of vitis vinifera grapes, resulting
in decline and premature death.
Aromas and flavours that suggest ripe plums.
Describes a wine that feels luxurious in the mouth.
Describes a wine of intensity and strength.
Describes a wine of delicacy and finesse.
Fresh fruit aromas suggestive of the wine varietal.
The dome-shaped indentation in the bottom of a wine bottle.
The process by which clear wine is removed from the settled sediment or
lees in the bottom of a container.
Also called black grapes, with skins that have reddish or blue pigment
in their skins.
Geographical area for wine growing less specific than a district; more
specific than a state or country.
Loose designation for presumably higher quality than "standard" version
of the wine. In the case of Champagne, reserve wine refers to wine from
previous vintages added to the cuvee for consistent quality and style.
Remaining sugar in wine after fermentation.
The art of turning and tilting bottles of sparkling wine in order to
ease the sediment into the neck of the bottle. Often performed
mechanically in modern facilities.
RISERVA / RESERVA
Italian/Spanish term for "reserve" indicating longer ageing before
release and suggesting higher quality. Regulations determine how long
this is for individual wines.
In still wine or Champagne, a slightly pink tint comes from contact with
the grape skins or the addition of a small portion of red wine to the
As opposed to flat or angular, refers to a wine's structure,
particularly acid, tannin, sweetness and alcohol.
A less expensive or second brand made from grapes or wine a level down
from primary label
A Champagne style that is dry, but sweeter than extra-sec.
Residue in the bottom of a bottle of red wine that forms as the wine
Describes a high-quality wine.
Refers to a smooth, supple texture.
Wine made from the (presumably) good grapes of a single plot of land and
not blended with any other grapes.
The pre-fermentation period in which the grape juice rests in contact
with the skins of the grapes. Used in red winemaking to enhance colors
and texture; may be used briefly in white winemaking to enhance aromas.
Aromas and flavours suggesting smoke or smoked wood imparted by oak
barrel fermentation or ageing.
Describes a wine that is not rough or harsh.
Wine lacking in hardness or roughness, and present when alcohol and
sugar dominate acidity and tannin.
Refers to all effervescent wines outside those from the Champagne region
of France, vinified the Methode Champenoise (correctly known elsewhere
are Methode Traditionelle).
Red wines with green or stalky tannins.
Woody part of the grape bunch that is high in tannin. Usually removed
and discarded before fermentation.
Aromas or flavors that suggest the mineral quality of stones.
A wine's alcohol, tannin, acid and sugar (if any).
How a wine's structural components are perceived. Ideally structure
should be well-balanced, without any one component dominant.
Characteristics that form the personality of the wine.
Describes a wine that is fluid in texture in the mouth, without
roughness or harshness.
The impression of a sugary taste in a wine. Can be due to the presence
of residual sugar or other sweet-tasting substances such as alcohol.
Describes wines too high in tannin.
A substance found in the skins, stems and seeds of grapes (grape
tannins) and imparted by oak barrels (wood tannins), that, in balance,
can lend structure, texture and ageability to red wines.
Aromas and flavours that suggest fresh tar.
A term that can be applied to wines that are too high in acid, or made
from under-ripe grapes.
The impressions formed by wine in the mouth, perceived as bitter, sweet
French term referring to the growing conditions in the vineyard,
including climate, soil, elevation, slope, drainage, topography etc.
How a wine feels in the mouth.
Can refer to a certain lean or underdeveloped quality of the wine in its
aromas, flavour or structure.
The process of bottling a cuvee with the addition of active yeast and
sugar in order to induce a second fermentation. The carbonation produced
by this second fermentation is trapped in the bottle, producing the
effervescence of Champagnes and sparkling wines.
The process by which evaporated wine is replaced in the barrel.
The unmistakable set of sensory characteristics attributable to a grape
Term for grape variety.
Aromas or flavors that suggest vegetables.
French phrase for country wine. Lower status than AOC.
The activity of making grape juice into wine.
The year in which a wine's grapes were harvested; sometimes referring to
the grape harvest itself. Vintage designations are only given to
Champagnes whose cuvees contain wines made from a single year's harvest.
As with Port, a Champagne vintage is only declared in a year of
The activity of growing grapes.
Species to which most of the worlds wine grapes belong.
Impression of heft and volume of the wine in the mouth.
Used to describe wines in which all component--alcohol, acid, tannin (if
any) and sugar (if any)--relate to each other in such a way that none
Describes tannins attributable to barrel ageing, rather than the grapes.
One-celled organisms responsible for turning grape juice into wine.